Hammer und Amboß (German Edition)
Lung bases : pulmonary edema Lower limbs Peripheral edema Signs of venous insufficiency e. Physiological variations Bradyarrhythmias Tachyarrhythmias.
Atrial tachyarrhythmias e. Irregularly irregular. Atrial fibrillation Atrial tachyarrhythmias e. Pulse deficit : difference between the pulse rate measured by cardiac auscultation and the peripheral pulse rate obtained by palpating the radial artery. Pulsus bigeminus : two heartbeats occur in rapid succession usually a high volume pulse followed by a low volume pulse followed by a long gap therefore regularly irregular.
Severe left heart failure Digoxin toxicity. Hyperkinetic pulse pulsus altus : bounding pulse Corrigan sign and water hammer pulse : bounding pulse best palpated on the radial, brachial, or carotid artery. Hypokinetic pulse pulsus parvus : soft pulse with a low amplitude. Low blood pressure. Reverse pulsus paradoxus : pulse volume increases with inspiration. Pulsus alternans : alternation of strong and weak pulses caused by alterations in the stroke volume cardiac output Dicrotic pulse : two peaks in the pulse wave occurring in systole and diastole.
Congestive heart failure. High-tension pulse : The vessel wall feels rigid and cord-like between beats during diastole and is not easily compressible. Arterial hypertension. Low-tension pulse : The vessel wall is either soft or not palpable between beats and is easily compressible. Fast-rising pulse : rapid upstroke of the pulse.
Aortic regurgitation. Low-rising pulse : delayed peak pressure of the carotid artery. Aortic stenosis. Radiofemoral delay.
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Coarctation of the aorta Vascular obstruction atherosclerosis Aneurysms. Closure of the mitral valve and tricuspid valve Best heard in the 5 th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line cardiac apex. Onset of systole Heard just before the carotid pulsation is felt. Closure of the aortic and pulmonary valve Two components: A2 : closure of the aortic valve louder P2 : closure of the pulmonary valve softer Best heard in the aortic region A2 and pulmonary region P2.
Transition from systole to diastole Heard immediately after the carotid pulsation. Always See splitting of S2 below. Ventricular filling sound Rapid ventricular filling Sudden deceleration of blood when the ventricle reaches its elastic limit.
Xeno Invasion Hammer und Amboss (German Edition) Max Lupin, LNAi on PopScreen
Physiological: advanced age Pathological: atrial gallop Ventricular hypertrophy e. During inspiration : The sound of aortic valve closure A2 precedes the sound of pulmonary valve closure P2. An exaggerated physiological split, i. A split in S2 that does not change with respiration , i. The split in S2 is audible during expiration but not inspiration. No splitting of S2.
Xeno Invasion Hammer und Amboss (German Edition) Max Lupin, LNAi
Severe aortic stenosis geriatric VSD with Eisenmenger syndrome pediatric. Opening of a stiff aortic valve in aortic stenosis. Early- systolic sound immediately after S1. Best heard with the diaphragm of a stethoscope at the aortic region with the patient seated and leaning forward. Opening of a stiff mitral valve in mitral stenosis.
Early- diastolic sound immediately after S2.
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Best heard with the bell of a stethoscope at the mitral region with the patient in a left lateral position. Mitral valve prolapse into the left atria during systole. Midsystolic sound. Best heard with the diaphragm of a stethoscope at the mitral region with the patient in left lateral position. S1 and S2 sounds that are produced by prosthetic valves sound like clicks. Caused by structural defects valvular disease or heart defects. Most commonly mid- systolic or continuous murmur. Systolic , diastolic , or continuous.
Position-dependent; murmur varies in intensity or disappears. Murmur rarely disappears. Cervical venous hum : common benign auscultation finding in children Caused by turbulent flow in internal jugular veins Continuous murmur best heard at the infraclavicular and supraclavicular regions ; more common on the right side Becomes softer or disappears with flexion of the head , compression of the jugular vein , or in supine position Still murmur. Aortic stenosis Aortic regurgitation Coarctation of the aorta. Pulmonary stenosis Pulmonary regurgitation ASD.
Mitral stenosis Mitral regurgitation Mitral valve prolapse. Tricuspid stenosis Tricuspid regurgitation. Continuous murmur of a PDA is heard best at this point. What are your thoughts? Log in or Sign up log in sign up. View discussions in 1 other community. Suffering through M1 right now, slowly dying inside.
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